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Zeiss
 
本公司由卡尔·蔡司先生于1846年创建于德国耶拿。公司一开始是一间精密机械和光学仪器车间。即使在早期,本公司生意兴隆,而且持续了很久。随着Ernst Abbe的杰出科学成果的应用,本公司逐渐成为全球光学设备仪器领域的领导人。这段成功的经历历时了整整一个世纪。随着第二次世界大战的结束,随着德国被强制性分离,蔡斯公司也被一分为二:一半在西德,一半在东德。随着1989/1990年东德政治形势的转变,二家竞争对手于1990年合并成一家公司。公司重新合并后,卡尔·蔡司的实力比历史上任何时候都强盛。今天,本公司以必胜的信心和期待展望着未来。
德国卡尔·蔡司 Carl Zeiss     


初期
1846 Carl Zeiss在德国耶拿建立一个精密机械及光学仪器车间。
1847 开始生产显微镜
1866 Ernst Abbe与Carl Zeiss 开始合作
1872 Abbe公司的显微镜成像理论导致显微镜革命性完善。
1884 Otto Schott, Ernst Abbe, Carl Zeiss 和 Roderich Zeiss 共同创立了“耶拿玻璃作业合作公司”
1889 Ernst Abbe 创立Carl Zeiss 基金会 (Carl Zeiss 基金会)
1891 Ernst Abbe 授权 Carl Zeiss 基金会为Zeiss工厂的唯一所有人。
德国分离时期
1945 耶拿 (Jena) 工厂一部分在战争中被毁;美国军队带走126名管理人员及科学家并把他们送到美国军事占领区。
1946 光学工程公司,即而又改名为卡尔·蔡司 (Carl Zeiss),继续经营西部的主要企业
1948 属于耶拿 Carl Zeiss 基金会的 Zeiss 和 Schott 工厂被没收;Zeiss 工厂成了国营企业,名为:耶拿 VEB Carl Zeiss
1949 巴登·符腾堡 (Baden-Wuerttemberg) 州政府将海登海姆 (Heidenheim) 作为 Carl Zeiss 基金会的法定地址。由于德国的政治性分割,使耶拿与奥伯科亨的工厂以各自的方法经营。
1965 耶拿 VEB Carl Zeiss 成了民主德国精密机械及光学工业的主导企业;耶拿 VEB Carl Zeiss开始成为企业集团。
1971 伦敦协议的签署。该协议规定了Zeiss作为名称和商标的使用权问题。
1990 民主德国的政治转变,导致Zeiss东西部企业的关系发生了变化。Biebelried 的企业声称他们准备并入Carl Zeiss 基金会。
1991 负责东德工业企业私有化的信托集团(Treuhandanstalt)Baden-Wuerttemberg 和 Thuringia、Jenoptik 有限公司、Carl Zeiss、Jenaer 玻璃有限公司和 Schott 玻璃厂签署了一份基本协议,协议规定Carl Zeiss 基金会地址将确定在耶拿 (Jena) 和海登海姆 (Heidenheim)。
1995 Carl Zeiss 奥伯科亨公司收购 Jenoptik 有限公司(图林根州公司)所持的耶拿Carl Zeiss有限公司的股份。
1996 Carl Zeiss 公司150周年
1998 卡尔·蔡司是一家世界领先的光学仪器制造企业,它在显微技术和工业测量技术、用于微蕊片制造的高性能透镜、外科显微技术以及眼科诊断和治疗系统等方面处于领先地位。
2000 卡尔·蔡司集团突破了 26 个领域,将其业务重点集中在四个增长市场:半导体工艺和微电子、生命科学、眼睛保护和工业测量技术。
2000 卡尔·蔡司对未来的半导体工艺充满信心。于是,卡尔•蔡司 在奥伯科亨投建了欧洲最现代化的新工厂,用来制造光学平版印刷系统,并制定了新的标准。后来,这家新工厂的占地面积达到 45,000 平方米,拥有大约1000名雇员。
2001 从十月份开始,半导体工艺业务部更名为卡尔·蔡司SMT AG,作为卡尔·蔡司旗下的一家独立经营的公司。
2002 眼科部和 Ascleption-Meditec AG 合并成为卡尔·蔡司 Meditec AG,因此卡尔·蔡司集团有了它的第一家上市的分支机构。


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天象演示和数字球幕投影系统
 
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半导体事业部纳米技术仪器(电子显微镜系列)
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 The Carl Zeiss AG is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices founded in Jena in 1846 by Carl Zeiss, Ernst Abbe, and Otto Schott. There are currently two parts of the company, the Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in the foundation city Jena.

The organisation is named after a founder, the German optician Carl Zeiss (1816–1888)。

Carl Zeiss is the premier company of the Zeiss Gruppe, one of the two large divisions of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena.

The other division of the Carl Zeiss Foundation, the glass manufacturer Schott AG and Jenaer Glaswerk, is located in Mainz and Jena.

Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world。

 

Zeiss corporate history

Carl Zeiss Jena (1910)
The manufacturer Zeiss in GöttingenThe history of Carl Zeiss AG begins in Jena before World War I[3], then the world's largest location of camera production. Zeiss Ikon represented a significant part of the production along with dozens of other brands and factories, and also had major works at Dresden.

In 1928 Hensoldt AG was acquired by Carl Zeiss and has produced the Zeiss binoculars and riflescopes since 1964.[4], occasionally resulting in twin products being offered under both the Hensoldt and Zeiss brand names. The Hensoldt System Technology division (resulting from a merger of the military optics operations of Leica and Hensoldt) was continued by Zeiss under the Hensoldt name until 2006.

The destruction of the war caused many companies to divide into smaller subcompanies and others to merge together. There was great respect for the engineering innovation that came out of Dresden—before the war the world's first 35 mm single-lens reflex camera, the Kine Exakta, and the first miniature camera with good picture quality were developed there.

At the end of the war Jena was occupied by the US Army. When Jena and Dresden were incorporated into the Soviet occupation zone, later East Germany, Zeiss Jena was assisted by the US army to relocate to the Contessa manufacturing facility in Stuttgart, West Germany, while the remainder of Zeiss Jena was taken over by the (Eastern) German Democratic Republic as Kombinat VEB Zeiss Jena[1]. The occupying Russians took most of the existing Zeiss factories and tooling back to the Soviet Union as the Kiev camera works, which produced copies of the Contax and other Zeiss Ikon products.

The western business was restarted in Oberkochen (in southwestern Germany) as Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1946, which became Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1947, but was soon renamed to Carl Zeiss. West German Zeiss products were labelled Opton for sale in the Eastern bloc, while East German Zeiss products where labelled "Zeiss Jena" for sale in Western countries.

In 1973, the Western Carl Zeiss AG entered into a licensing agreement with the Japanese camera company Yashica to produce a series of high-quality 35 mm film cameras and lenses bearing the Contax and Zeiss brand names. This collaboration continued under Yashica's successor, Kyocera, until the latter ceased all camera production in 2005. Zeiss later produced lenses for the space industry and, more recently, has again produced high-quality 35 mm camera lenses.

Following German reunification, VEB Zeiss Jena became Zeiss Jena GmbH, which became Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH in 1990. In 1991, Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena was split in two, with Carl Zeiss AG (Oberkochen) taking over the company's divisions for microscopy and other precision optics (effectively reuniting the pre-war Carl Zeiss enterprise) and moving its microscopy division back to Jena. Jenoptik GmbH was split off as a specialty company in the areas of photonics, optoelectronics, and mechatronics.[5][6]

The Hensoldt AG was renamed Carl Zeiss Sports Optics GmbH on 1 October, 2006.[7]

The companies of the Zeiss Gruppe in and around Dresden have branched into new technologies: screens and products for the automotive industry, for example. Zeiss nonetheless still continues to be a camera manufacturer, and still produces the Pentacon, Praktica[2], and special-use lenses (e.g., Exakta).

Today, there are arguably three companies with primarily Zeiss Ikon heritage: Zeiss Germany, the Finnish/Swedish Ikon (which bought the West German Zeiss Ikon AG), and the independent eastern Zeiss Ikon.

[edit] Innovations
The Zeiss company was responsible for many innovations in optical design and engineering. Early on, Carl Zeiss realised that he needed a competent designer so as to take the firm beyond just being another optical workshop. In 1866, the service of Dr Ernst Abbe was enlisted. From then on novel products appeared in rapid succession which brought the Zeiss company to the forefront of optical technology.

Abbe was instrumental in the development of the famous Jena optical glass。 When he was trying to eliminate astigmatism from microscopes, he realised that the range of optical glasses available was insufficient。 After some calculations, he realised that performance of optical instruments would dramatically improve, if optical glasses of appropriate properties were available。 His challenge to glass manufacturers was finally answered by Dr Otto Schott, who established the famous glassworks at Jena from which new types of optical glass began to appear from 1888, and employed by Zeiss and other makers。

The new Jena optical glass also opened up the possibility of increased performance of photographic lenses. The first use of Jena glass in a photographic lens was by Voigtländer, but as the lens was an old design its performance was not greatly improved. Subsequently the new glasses would demonstrate their value in correcting astigmatism, and in the production of apochromatic lenses. Abbe started the design of a photographic lens of symmetrical design with five elements, but went no further.

Zeiss' domination of photographic lens innovation was due to Dr Paul Rudolph。 In 1890, Rudolph designed an asymmetrical lens with a cemented group at each side of the diaphragm, and appropriately named "Anastigmat"。 This lens was made in three series: Series III, IV and V, with maximum apertures of f/7。2, f/12。5, and f/18 respectively。 In 1891, Series I, II and IIIa appeared with respective maximum apertures of f/4。5, f/6。3, and f/9 and in 1893 came Series IIa of f/8 maximum aperture。 These lenses are now better known by the trademark "Protar" which was first used in 1900。

At the time, single combination lenses, which occupy one side of the diaphragm only, were still popular. Rudolph designed one with three cemented elements in 1893, with the option of fitting two of them together in a lens barrel as a compound lens, but it was found to be the same as the Dagor by C.P. Goerz, designed by Emil von Hoegh. Rudolph then came up with a single combination with four cemented elements, which can be considered as having all the elements of the Protar stuck together in one piece. Marketed in 1894, it was called the Protarlinse Series VII, the most highly corrected single combination lens with maximum apertures between f/11 and f/12.5, depending on its focal length.

But the important thing about this Protarlinse is that two of these lens units can be mounted in the same lens barrel to form a compound lens of even greater performance and larger aperture, between f/6.3 and f/7.7. In this configuration it was called the Double Protar Series VIIa. An immense range of focal lengths can thus be obtained by the various combination of Protarlinse units.

Rudolph also investigated the Double-Gauss concept of a symmetrical design with thin positive meniscii enclosing negative elements. The result was the Planar Series Ia of 1896, with maximum apertures up to f/3.5, one of the fastest lenses of its time. Whilst it was very sharp, it suffered from coma which limited its popularity. However, further developments of this configuration made it the design of choice for high-speed lenses of standard coverage.

Probably inspired by the Stigmatic lenses designed by Hugh Aldis for Dallmeyer of London, Rudolph designed a new asymmetrical lens with four thin elements, the Unar Series Ib, with apertures up to f/4。5。 Due to its high speed it was used extensively on hand cameras。

The most important Zeiss lens by Rudolph was the Tessar, first sold in 1902 in its Series IIb f/6.3 form. It can be said as a combination of the front half of the Unar with the rear half of the Protar. This proved to be a most valuable and flexible design, with tremendous development potential. Its maximum aperture was increased to f/4.7 in 1917, and reached f/2.7 in 1930. It is probable that every lens manufacturer has produced lenses of the Tessar configuration.

Rudolph left Zeiss after the First World War, but many other competent designers such as Merté, Wandersleb, etc。 kept the firm at the leading edge of photographic lens innovations。 One of the most significant designer was the ex-Ernemann man Dr Ludwig Bertele, famed for his Ernostar high-speed lens。

With the advent of the Contax by Zeiss-Ikon, the first serious challenge to the Leica in the field of professional 35 mm cameras, both Zeiss-Ikon and Carl Zeiss decided to beat the Leica in every possible way. Bertele's Sonnar series of lenses designed for the Contax were the match in every respect for the Leica for at least two decades. Other lenses for the Contax included the Biotar, Biogon, Orthometar, and various Tessars and Triotars.

The last important Zeiss innovation before the Second World War was the technique of applying anti-reflective coating to lens surfaces. A lens so treated was marked with a red "T", short for "Transparent". The technique of applying multiple layers of coating was developed from this basis after the war, and known as "T*" (T-star).

After the partitioning of Germany, a new Carl Zeiss optical company was established in Oberkochen, while the original Zeiss firm in Jena continued to operate. At first both firms produced very similar lines of products, and extensively cooperated in product-sharing, but they drifted apart as time progressed. Jena's new direction was to concentrate on developing lenses for the 35 mm single-lens reflex camera, and many achievements were made, especially in ultra-wide angle designs. In addition to that, Oberkochen also worked on designing lenses for large format cameras, interchangeable front element lenses such as for the 35 mm single-lens reflex Contaflex, and other types of cameras.

Since the beginning of Zeiss as a photographic lens manufacturer, it has had a licensing programme which allows other manufacturers to produce its lenses. Over the years its licensees included Voigtländer, Bausch & Lomb, Ross, Koristka, Krauss, Kodak. etc. In the 1970s, the western operation of Zeiss-Ikon got together with Yashica to produce the new Contax cameras, and many of the Zeiss lenses for this camera, among others, were produced by Yashica's optical arm, Tomioka. As Yashica's owner Kyocera ended camera production in 2006, and Yashica lenses were then made by Cosina, who also manufactured most of the new Zeiss designs for the new Zeiss Ikon coupled rangefinder camera. Another licensees active today is Sony who uses the Zeiss name on lenses on its video and digital still cameras.

[edit] Reputation

Now over 100 years old, Zeiss continues to be associated with expensive and high-quality optical lenses. Zeiss lenses are generally thought to be elegant and well-constructed, yielding high-quality images. Even old lens designs such as the Tessar demonstrate engineering elegance and in the modern age of plastic parts, many Zeiss lenses are still made with predominantly metal components.

Zeiss licenses its technology to be manufactured by third-party companies and indeed, many have done so. Notable names include Hasselblad, a famous name in medium format professional cameras. Rollei, Yashica, Sony, Logitech and Alpa amongst others, have used or manufactured lenses under Zeiss license. The Contax line of 35 mm cameras, first produced by Yashica and subsequently Kyocera until 2005 are perhaps the most well-known to fit Zeiss lenses. Notably absent from this list are the Japanese companies Canon, Nikon, and Pentax, who by and large produce their own lenses.

分分时时彩On 27 April 2005 the company announced a collaboration with Nokia in the camera phone market。 The first product to emerge out of this collaboration is the Nokia N90。

Outside the world of cameras and imaging, Zeiss also produces spectacle lenses, particularly lenses made from high refractive index glass, allowing people whose prescriptions require stronger spectacles to use thinner lenses. These are sold in many countries, though not in the United States. As of 2010 Carl Zeiss eyeglass lenses are sold in the United States through Carl Zeiss Vision Inc.[8]

The Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology subsidiary is a respected source of coordinate measurement machines and mutidimensional metrology systems. Zeiss is a recognized partner to the automotive industry.[9]

A unique pair of fast 50mm F/0。7 lenses originally created by Zeiss for NASA's lunar program had the distinction of being reused by Stanley Kubrick in the filming of his historical drama, "Barry Lyndon"。 The period atmosphere of the film demanded that several indoor scenes be filmed by candlelight。 To facilitate this, Kubrick had, with great difficulty, the lenses modified to mount onto a cinema camera。 [3]

Zeiss is currently in the process of designing the optical components for the James Webb Space Telescope set to replace the Hubble Space Telescope sometime in 2014.

[edit] Products
This section only describes one highly specialized aspect of its associated subject. Please help improve this article by adding more general information. (July 2009)

Zeiss and its subsidiaries offer a wide range of products related to optics and vision. These include camera and cine lenses, microscopes and microscopy software, binoculars and spotting scopes, eyeglasses and lenses, planetariums and dome video-systems, optics for military applications (head tracker systems, submarine periscopes, targeting systems, ...), optical sensors, industrial metrology systems and ophthalmology products. The largest part of Carl Zeiss AG's revenue is generated by its Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies division, which produces lithographic systems for the semiconductor industry as well as process control solutions (electron microscopes, mask repair tools, helium ion microscopes).[10]

[edit] Medical Solutions
This branch of Carl Zeiss is managed by Carl Zeiss Meditec. It is divided in Ophthalmology/Optometry, Neurosurgery, ENT, Spine, P&R, Dentistry, Radiotherapy and Gynecology.

[edit] Industrial Metrology
Zeiss Industrial Metrology specializes in high accuracy measurement systems, including coordinate measuring machines, computed tomography measurement machines (non-medical), optical measuring equipment, metrology software and measurement sensor systems. The Industrial Metrology subsidiary provides this equipment to a wide range of manufacturing facilities worldwide.[11]

Zeiss has manufactured coordinate measuring machines (CMM's) since 1973, introducing the UMM 500, using a Zeiss sensor system and Hewlett Packard computer.[12] Zeiss has since vastly improved and diversified their product line and now feature many high accuracy CMM's, and now the Metrotom, a CT x-ray scanning measuring machine, with the ability to quickly and completely measure a part in 3 dimensions without ever touching the part.[13]

Zeiss is currently a member of the International Association of CMM Manufacturers (IACMM)。[14]

Many of the sensor systems produced by Zeiss are proprietary technologies, using technologies exclusively patented by Zeiss, and therefore can offer better accuracy and repeatability than its competitors.[15]

Zeiss was the first manufacturer of coordinate measurement machines to introduce computer numerical control (CNC) technology to a coordinate measuring machine. Zeiss was the first company to offer CNC stylus changer capability for coordinate measuring machines.[12]

[edit] Microscopes
This section requires expansion.

Zeiss offers many different types of microscopes:

Optical microscopes
Laser Scanning Microscopes (LSMs)
Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs)
Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs)
Scanning Helium Ion Microscopes (SHIMs)
[edit] Cameras
[edit] Zeiss Ikon Camera

Zeiss Ikon is the name given to a range of top-quality cameras produced by a sister company of Carl Zeiss. Over the years, a number of camera models had carried the same name, leading to confusion among users who are unfamiliar with Carl Zeiss naming system. Zeiss Ikon users usually refer to their cameras using Zeiss' catalogue number, as everything sold by Zeiss was assigned one.

The latest Zeiss Ikon rangefinder camera was introduced by Zeiss in 2004 and is similar to the Leica M series cameras. The new camera, manufactured in Japan by Cosina, is fully compatible with Leica and other lenses with the Leica M mount.

The name Zeiss Ikon can also be found in old cinemas, for example on fire shutters on the projection windows. These had heat fuses that melted and dropped the shutter over the hole if the film caught fire in the projection booth.


 

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